Regional power politics and the birth of Penang

By Abdur-Razzaq Lubis

January 2010 HISTORY TODAY
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Any place that enjoys a prime location is bound to be caught in regional conflicts. Penang, possessing a safe harbour, was naturally involved in the power struggles of the late 18th century. Indeed, it evolved out of that painful process.PENANG'S HISTORY is directly tied to that of Kedah, a sovereign — and the oldest — kingdom on the peninsula before its annexation by Siam in the 13th century. As tributary states, Kedah and its subsidiary state of Perlis sent bunga...

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Abdur-Razzaq Lubis

is a writer and the Malaysia and Singapore representative to the Mandailing All Clans Assembly.