Chinese and Muslim Societies As Natural Allies

By Mahani Musa

October 2011 FEATURE
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A boria troupe
The old port of Penang, being cosmopolitan and frontier territory, naturally exhibited a wide range of societies formed for various reasons to deal with internal welfare issues, with other societies and with the government. Cooperation between them commonly transcended racial boundaries. Their history can bring insights into how Malaysian and Penang society became the way it is today.VERY LITTLE HAS BEEN written on the existence of two Muslim secret societies in Penang, namely the Red and the White Flags, and...

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Mahani Musa

is a lecturer in History at the School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, her current research interest is Malaysian social history. She is the author of Malay Secret Societies in the Northern Malay States, 1821-1940s.