The Happiness in Penang (HIP) Index 2020-2021

By Yeong Pey Jung, Negin Vaghefi

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MORE OFTEN THAN not, a nation’s state of progress and development is measured by the metrics of gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), volume of foreign and domestic investments and other similar economic indicators.These metrics, though effective tools to evaluate a country’s financial wealth by, do not measure the social development and wellbeing of its people. Various studies have shown that economic progress does not necessarily guarantee increased happiness and subjective wellbeing.1In the U. K., steady economic growth...

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Yeong Pey Jung

is a senior analyst with the Socioeconomics and Statistics Programme at Penang Institute. She is a reading enthusiast and is surgically attached to her Kindle.

Negin Vaghefi

is a senior analyst at Penang Institute. She holds a Ph.D. in Environmental Economics. Her research interests include agri-environmental economics, climate change, green economics, poverty and income inequality, and policy analysis.