The Forgotten Travails of Indentured Indian Women in Malaya
By Preveena Balakrishnan
March 2021LEST WE FORGET
THE MIGRATION OF indentured labourers from India to Malaya – via the kangani or independent hiring systems – was to satisfy British need for cheap labour. These coolies were “milked” for labour and the derogatory term, kalutai or donkey, was used by the kangani to refer to them.These coolie immigrants settled for very little and was easily exploited. Wages were meagre and facilities like land for housing, education and medical were wanting. Demands for higher wages and better working conditions...
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