The local government or local authority, or “pihak berkuasa tempatan”, is the lowest level in the hierarchy of governance in Malaysia, after federal and state. The position of local governments in Malaysia is stated in the Federal Constitution. According to items four and five of the Ninth Schedule of the Federal Constitution, local governments other than those in the Federal Territories (KL, Labuan and Putrajaya) are subjects under the state list, and are therefore directly under the exclusive jurisdiction of the state government. There are currently 149 local authorities, consisting of 12 city halls/councils, 39 municipal councils, 98 district councils and five special and modified local authorities.
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