MULTIPLE CLIMATE HAZARD indices have categorised Malaysia’s Northern Region – Penang, Perlis, Kedah and Perak – as “middle” for its vulnerability to drought and flood risks (Yusuf and Francisco, 2009). But how exactly will extreme weather events impact Penang, socio-economically?
High temperatures, along with low humidity and rainfall, contribute to heatwaves and droughts. Reduction in soil moisture amplifies hot weather extremes, leading to even hotter and drier conditions. It was no surprise then that the drought of 2016 caused a water supply deficit in Penang (Dermawan, 2020). Alarmed, the State Government resorted to 11 cloud seeding operations costing approximately RM459,000 ...
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